In addition to its role as a physical barrier, the skin is also an immune organ that contributes to both the innate and adaptive immune systems. In humans, keratinocytes produce a number of cytokines, including IL1a, IL-2, IL-6, TGFb1, TNF-a, and INF-g, as well as many of the components of the complement system . Dolphin lipokeratinocytes are less well-studied, but produce β-defensin-2 and -3, which are induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines and may serve as a non-specific defense against bacteria, fungi, and algae . It is currently unknown what other cytokines or complement components may be produced by lipokeratinocytes. Cells in the stratum spinosum produce antimicrobial compounds including lysozyme, which becomes more concentrated and found in intercellular spaces once these cells migrate into the stratum corneum . In addition, major histocompatibility (MHC) II antigen-positive, Langerhans-like lymphocytes concentrated at the dermal-epidermal interface indicate the presence of the adaptive immune system in dolphin skin . Langerhans cells, once activated, can migrate to the lymph nodes and present phagocytized antigens to activate the adaptive immune system. An extensive network of dermal papillae carries lymph and blood vessels, as well as nerve bundles deep into the epidermis, providing access to the circulating immune system and responses to the central nervous system. Skin is also considered a steroidogenic organ because it locally synthesizes and metabolizes various steroid hormones and expresses their receptors , and these may play a role in epidermal growth and differentiation.
Let's play a game for a second. Say, hypothetically, LSU blows the doors off of Georgia in the SEC Championship Game. Would the CFP Selection Committee give the two-loss Tigers a spot in the four-team playoff? They would have two quality wins over Georgia and Alabama, but the loss to Tennessee doesn't look as great as it did prior to Tennessee's loss to South Carolina, and the season-opening loss to No. 16 Florida State isn't excusable for a title-worthy team.
Auburn is a 22-point underdog to Alabama, which suggests that this edition of the Iron Bowl is poised to be a blowout. Not so fast. It was a 20.5-point spread last season, and Alabama needed four overtimes to beat an Auburn team that was led by quarterback T.J. Finley, who was hampered by a leg injury throughout the game.
Once upon a time, South Carolina quarterback Spencer Rattler was a Heisman Trophy favorite at Oklahoma. He didn't live up to that hype, but he looked the part last Saturday when he thew for 438 yards and six touchdowns in the 63-38 win over Tennessee. Could he repeat the feat and bring Clemson's CFP hopes to a screeching halt? It'll take an effort even better than the one we saw vs. the Volunteers.
The Tigers are giving up just 214.5 passing yards per game and, more importantly, 6.2 yards per attempt. Big plays in the passing game is exactly what made Rattler successful on Saturday when he averaged 11.8 yards per attempt. Rattler wrecked Tennessee's CFP chances last weekend, and he has a chance to do the same this weekend to his team's arch-rival. It'll take much more magic than last week, though.
The Rebels have lost two straight and their defense has regressed to the point where even a 703-yard offensive effort can earn a win. Plus, rumors are swirling that Rebels coach Lane Kiffin could be eyeing other jobs within the SEC. The Ole Miss pass defense is giving up 216.1 yards per game through the air (10th in the SEC), and Bulldogs quarterback Will Rogers will stay hot in an upset win over the reeling Rebs. Pick: Mississippi State (+2.5)
The Tigers offense has struggled for the majority of the season, and that's not a good sign considering Arkansas just beat an Ole Miss team that is designed specifically for shootouts. Razorbacks quarterback KJ Jefferson is back, and it's almost impossible to prepare for how he operates as a between-the-tackles runner and passer. Jefferson and star running back Raheim Sanders will run away from the Tigers in the second half. Pick: Arkansas (-3)
The Seminoles have topped the 38-point mark in each of their last four games, which included a 38-3 win over Syracuse two games ago. That's going to force Gators quarterback Anthony Richardson to become more of a threat with his arm, and that's not his strong point. Yes, he threw for 400 yards in last weekend's loss to Vanderbilt, but he had to do that in order for his team to have a chance after a slow start. I'll take the Seminoles to win and cover, especially since a 10-point win cashes. Pick: Florida State (-9.5)
The Yellow Jackets have actually been playing some really good defense lately, including last week when it held the potent North Carolina offense to 365 yards in the 21-17 upset road win in Chapel Hill. They'll be able to force enough stops to keep this one within five touchdowns. Don't get me wrong, Georgia will win and control it throughout, but the Bulldogs have bigger fish to fry and will pull their starters early in the fourth quarter. Pick: Georgia Tech (+35.5)
The Gamecocks will come crashing back down to Earth at Clemson as Rattler fails to recapture the magic of last week against a much better pass defense. Tigers quarterback DJ Uiagalelei will avoid mistakes, they'll go on long drives to make sure that Rattler stays on the sideline and its stout defensive front seven will force enough mistakes to give them a late cover. Pick: Clemson (-14.5)
The Cardinals could be without star quarterback Malik Cunningham, though even if he plays, he is unlikely to be at 100%. The Wildcats shurt down Georgia's offense for the majority of last week's loss, and it won't be intimidated by anything that the Cardinals do with or without Cunningham. Wildcats coach Mark Stoops will get a balanced performance from running back Chris Rodriguez Jr. and quarterback Will Levis, which will be enough to win it by a touchdown or more. Pick: Kentucky (-3)
The "Cadillac factor" under interim coach Carnell Williams has made a huge difference for the Auburn Tigers, but this is a different animal. This is the Iron Bowl against an Alabama team that is significantly more talented, and has a quarterback in Bryce Young who is likely making his last home start before moving on to the NFL. I fully expect this to be close(ish) for two-and-a-half quarters but for things to get sideways late and Young to go out with a bang. Pick: Alabama (-22)
Quite frankly, I have no idea why LSU is only a 10-point favorite over an Aggies team that is depleted by injuries and have the end of a miserable season in sight. LSU has polished off a punishing rushing attack with John Emery Jr. and Noah Cain in the backfield, and quarterback Jayden Daniels taking the snaps. The last thing Texas A&M will want to do is get in a fistfight when there's nothing on the line. This one will get very, very ugly. Pick: LSU (-10)
Let's go back in time to one month ago and think about how crazy it would be to say that Tennessee will only be favored by two touchdowns over Vanderbilt in the regular-season finale. Yet, here we are with the reeling Volunteers going up against a Commodores crew that is riding a two-game winning streak. Volunteers quarterback Joe Milton steps in for Hendon Hooker and lights the 'Dores pass defense up to make this one a shootout. Vandy won't be able to keep up, and the Vols will enter bowl season with a little bit of momentum. Pick Tennessee (-14)
I have been trying to print the quarter-page set up in multiple page set up on my printer but its unable to print. Please advise as to how i can print in multiples as i want more than 4 words per page. Looking forward to your response.
In the annals of mankind, 1850 was by no stretch of the imagination a year of world-shaking importance, yet it had noteworthy features. A wave of humanitarian ferment--deep and widespread--nourished by Christian ethics, swept over the United States. Temperance, denunciation of the use of tobacco, collectivist Utopias, feminism, betterment in the care of the insane and prisoners, relief for victims of a terrible Irish famine, world peace--each of these causes claimed its spirited partisans. Yet they were dwarfed by the crusade against Negro slavery and in the South by multiplying threats of secession from the Union, uttered in the halls of Congress and outside. Except for extremists on both sides, the historic Compromise of 1850 tended to cool sectional passions; as the event proved, a civil conflict was postponed for a decade.In the midst of the torrid debate on the Compromise, President Zachary Taylor of Mexican war fame passed away and Millard Fillmore took up residence in the White House; his second wife, parenthetically, bequeathed part of her estate to the University. That governmental operations were on a decidedly small scale is amply attested by the fact that expenditures for the year amounted to approximately $43,000,000; income exceeded outgo by nearly ten percent! Indian tribesmen on the frontiers to the West were still an annoyance and arrested settlement in areas where they were strong. A piratical band of Americans invaded Cuba in 1850 with the object of annexing the "Queen of the Antilles" to the United States, but the adventure, which had interesting affinities with the "Bay of Pigs" fiasco of 1961, quickly disintegrated. An Anglo-American treaty of 1850 foreshadowed the cutting of a ship canal through Central America from the Atlantic to the Pacific.On the international horizon of 1850 a tense situation developed when France and imperial Russia protested indignantly against a British blockade of the port of Athens and seizure of Greek shipping in retaliation for an assault upon an alleged subject of Queen Victoria. In the British Isles, movements for improving human welfare, akin to those operating in the United States, were pointed toward suffrage extension, a ten hour working day in factories, help for the distressed rural population, elimination of religious tests for members of parliament (a Jew, Baron Rothschild, was allowed to take his seat after swearing allegiance on the Old Testament alone), and the suppression of the trade in African slaves. English-speaking countries were greatly excited in 1850 about the mystery of a British Arctic expedition, led by Sir John Franklin, which in two small ships had sailed forth five years before to seek the Northwest Passage. British and American search crews found traces of the lost vessels in 1850, though nine years more elapsed before the discovery of gaunt skeletons testified to the melancholy fate that had befallen the resolute Franklin and his heroic seamen.Large sections of the European continent were rapidly recovering from revolutionary upheavals in 1848, which had ephemeral reverberations in the United States. By reason of revolts in the Danube Valley, Emperor Francis Joseph had been seated on the venerable throne of the Hapsburgs and, like his British counterpart, Queen Victoria, he would wield the scepter for many decades to come. That artful adventurer, Louis Napoleon, occupying the French presidential chair, was ambitiously broadening the scope of his office, despite militant protestations from a portion of the Paris press.Germany and Italy were both simply geographical expressions, not yet national states. As a concession to the revolutionary impulse, the King of Prussia in 1850 granted a constitution of sorts to his subjects, while in the Italian peninsula Pope Pius IX returned to the papal dominions from which he had fled in 1848 and Count Camillo Cavour, a key figure in the eventual unification of his fatherland, assumed the prime ministership of Piedmont. Ever a mystery wrapped in an enigma, tsarist Russia with its large fighting services seemed to menace the security of the countries to the west, but in fact the stage was being readied for the Crimean War which would reveal that the European colossus had feet of clay.Farther away, Africa remained very much an unknown quantity, a dark continent, except for the Mediterranean littoral, the southern extremity, and fringing coastal districts which European imperialisms claimed as their glittering preserves; India stood out as the fairest jewel in Victoria' s glittering crown. Normally somnolent and static, China was upset in 1850 by the beginnings of the terribly destructive Tai Ping rebellion, while Japan blissfully clung to isolation in its tight little islands, almost hermetically sealed from the rest of the world.In the department of science, 1850 saw the discovery of several new planets, Robert W. von Bunsen, a chemist at the University of Marburg, devised the "Bunsen burner" and the Königsberg physiologist, Hermann L. F. Helmholtz, invented his celebrated ophthalmoscope, a tool of the utmost importance for medicine.Creative contributions to culture would alone have made 1850 memorable. Prelude or the Growth of a Poet's Mind by William Wordsworth appeared shortly after his death and Alfred Tennyson's In Memoriam was published, enshrining aspirations to be eternally cherished:Ring out old shapes of foul disease, Ring out the narrowing lust of gold; Ring out the thousand wars of old, Ring in the thousand years of peace. Charles Dickens completed the immortal David Copperfield and a mixed-up Russian refugee in Britain, Alexander Herzen, started to issue (and never finished) his revealing autobiography, My Past and Reflections. Across the Atlantic, "the flowering of New England" yielded Representative Men by Ralph Waldo Emerson, The Scarlet Letter, best-loved of Nathaniel Hawthorne's novels, and Herman Melville was applying the finishing touches to his epic saga, Moby Dick.Camille Corot exhibited the famous "Matinée" in Paris and the majestic Lohengrin by Richard Wagner had its premiere performance - in Weimar, still redolent with the memories of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Queen's University in Dublin obtained a charter and universities at Sydney, New South Wales and Rochester, New York, started on their historic careers.According to one contemporary survey and estimate, the United States as of 1850 boasted 233 colleges and universities, attended by 27,159 learners, and 1,657 teachers--on an average seven in each institution--offered instruction; faculty salaries hovered around $1,000 a year. On an average, again, the income per college was $8,225, of which less than a fifth came from endowment resources. This critical commentator deplored the multiplication of centers of alleged higher education, in response to the quest of communities for cultural prestige or to Protestant denominational exuberance. 1Because of competition for students, qualifications for admission and standards of academic performance were deplorably low; youths were "treated like school-boys and they are school-boys." College degrees, the writer charged, were not worth the parchment on which they were inscribed. As for trustees, they were chosen solely because of their influence, real or assumed, and those among them who were not actually disinterested were incompetent to manage institutions of learning. The author of this indictment appealed to state legislatures to cease granting college charters with reckless abandon and to churches to stifle sectarian impulses--without propounding persuasive formulae on precisely how these ends should be achieved.IIThe original, or "Presbyterian", scheme for a seat of higher learning beside the Genesee had not succeeded; similar was the outcome of plans to move Madison University thither. Yet the idea of a university for Rochester, strengthened if anything by frustrations and diversity, would not be denied. The third adventure of mind and spirit became a reality.When it seemed apparent that the removal of Madison University could not be brought off, the principal sponsors of that project applied to the Regents of the University of the State of New York for a provisional charter to set up a distinct and independent collegiate institution at Rochester. The petition was addressed to the Regents on the recommendation of ex-Governor William L. Marcy, a removalist, who believed that an application to the state legislature would invite stubborn, possibly fatal, opposition from the friends of Madison. The charter was sought in order to establish "an institution of the highest order for scientific and classical purposes"; and the Regents were informed that the college would be located "at or near" Rochester, that plans were in train to raise funds to a total of at least $130,000 of which $ 30,000 would be expended on a site and buildings and the rest would form a permanent endowment, and they were given a list of New Yorkers who would function as trustees. These men would appoint a president and professors, and authority to confer academic degrees was requested.On January 31, 1850, the Regents issued the desired charter, on the understanding that the indicated financial arrangements would be completed in two years; if the goal were not attained by then, "a reasonable period of grace" would be allowed, but if the money had not been raised at the end of the time extension the charter would become null and void.When it was certain that Madison University would not be transferred, some pledges that had been made for a center of higher learning in Rochester were canceled, but after the issuance of the provisional charter the campaign to collect funds increased in tempo. A U. of R. fund-raising committee of six Baptists called upon "every Baptist in this great state... to join with your brethren in establishing a memorial before God and men, worthy of your principles.... not to speak of those peculiar and precious Theological truths, held by us... the great principle of Soul Liberty.... To this great principle our Literary Institution will be consecrated." Either money or merchandise would be welcomed, and it was stated that tuition charges would be waived for at least forty students preparing to be preachers. 2A persuasive editorial in the Rochester press solicited financial support on the grounds that "for the honor of our city we ought to establish an institution that will compare with Yale and Cambridge and furnish in the coming generation her share of Poets, Orators, and Statesmen." An anonymous "Mr. O." reasoned that an investment of $130,000 would pay the city handsome dividends, for merchants would profit from supplying the everyday necessities of faculty, and students and the value of real estate would move up. It would be much cheaper, too, for a local family to educate a son in Rochester than to enroll him in an eastern college. "At the same time the youths would be under the parental eye and the sacred restraint and influences of home. " Beyond all that, a university would contribute materially to elevating and refining the tone of society and would enhance the national reputation of the aspiring Genesee community. Rochesterians were told that the liberality with which they subscribed would influence potential donors elsewhere. 3So elated was John N. Wilder by the response to calls for subscriptions that he thought the goal might well be increased to $200,000. For the moral effect, he wished professors at Madison University who had expressed an interest in transferring to Rochester to make contributions. "The question is often asked, he wrote, "'Will the faculty come? ... You all might subscribe $100 apiece or more or less - the payment or non-payment of it can be fixed to suit yourselves." It would be helpful in the fund campaign, he added, if the Madison professors prepared a short statement on behalf of an endowment. 4Primarily to aid in the financial appeal, Wilder and William N. Sage collaborated in writing and publishing The Annunciator. Five issues of this neatly printed, four-page paper appeared between April 1850 and October 1851, and several thousand copies were distributed gratis to Baptist ministers and potential donors all over New York state. The slogan proclaimed on the masthead "Attempt great things. Expect great things." Apart from periodic reports on the progress of the campaign for subscriptions, The Annunciator carried articles designed to counteract denunciations of the Rochester enterprise that issued from quarters sympathetic to the imperiled Madison University. The paper also diffused information on the degree to which the Baptist denomination lagged behind other American Christian communions in providing facilities for the higher culture of the mind and ran inspirational articles under such headings as "Farmers Educate Your Sons" and "An Educated Ministry Needful." When the University went into actual operation, The Annunciator printed accounts of professors, building, equipment, and the like; an occasional sober advertisement was tucked in between news columns.Meanwhile, on May 11, 1850, an educational meeting of New York Baptists convened at Rochester to mature plans for the new university and a separate school of theology. Among those in attendance were four Madison professors and Chester A. Dewey, who offered the closing prayer. The board of trustees was confirmed and urged to take immediate steps to engage a faculty and to open the university as soon as practicable; committees to devise a curriculum and to gather funds were named. 5Journalistic encouragement for the university undertaking also came from an influential Baptist periodical, the New York Recorder. One glowing article read in part: "Rochester is. . . precisely the spot for a university. It has the requisite social advantages without the dissipating luxuries of the great marts of commerce. It has a sober and religious population--a population which will both appreciate a good university and take proper care of it. We are glad that the university is to wear the name of the city. We believe the liberal interest manifested by the citizens in its establishment a pledge that it will abide in their hearts and share their prosperity... What a region for a university is western New York! What a blessing that divine Providence left it open for occupation at such a juncture! All that region is interested in this enterprise. This university comes with a blessing to every man's door. Its influence will be felt... in every department of life, in every vocation, and at every home. The project attempted is not a work for one generation, but for children's children." 6Subscription agents scoured the Rochester area and indeed New York state as a whole on the hunt for money. Volunteer collectors, "enterprising and energetic gentlemen," included Professor Raymond of Madison and that experienced veteran,Chester Dewey. Newspaper man and pillar of the First Baptist Church, Alvah Strong, recounted in his Autobiography, "I myself went with Messrs. Wilder and Sage...from store to store and from house to house, in city and country, soliciting subscriptions to the University." 7Supplementing the labors of unpaid workers, hired collectors--Baptist preachers with time to spare, some of whom had formerly solicited help for Madison University, and students at that institution--roamed far and wide to get money, even invading territory which the university at Hamilton regarded as its exclusive domain. Whenever it seemed likely to prove effective, agents unblushingly told potential contributors that the mission of the Madison rival had come to an end.Subscription blanks explained that pledges would not be valid unless $130,000 were pledged. If and when the objective was reached then a quarter of each pledge would be due in cash and the balance might take the form of interest-bearing notes to be redeemed within three years, but some donors preferred to pledge payment in installments over a longer period. The Annunciator published lengthy lists of contributors and the amounts that each donor subscribed. A quota of $65,000 for Monroe County was reported to have been exceeded in Rochester alone.Heading the contributors was Wilder himself with a promise of $10,000 (only about sixty percent of which was actually paid because of financial reverses he suffered), Deacon Oren Sage, who ranked second to none in rallying the Baptists of western New York to the university cause, entered his name for $1,000, and scores of other men, representing "the wealth, intelligence, influence and piety" of the Flour City, pledged lesser sums. Baptists were the most numerous contributors, but other Protestant denominations were well represented and several public-spirited Roman Catholics subscribed. Baptists in the adjoining community of Wheatland, the many-branched family of pioneer settler Rawson Harmon pacing the field, turned in $6,000. Banker Roswell S. Burrows of Albion promised $2,000 and the children of Judge Daniel C.(?) Munro of Elbridge near Syracuse, who had habitually been a benefactor of Madison University, arranged to endow a professorship in Greek at a cost of $8,000 - the first named chair in the history of the University. James S. Wadsworth of Geneseo indicated that his pledge of $1,000 would be enlarged if the university authorities would agree to lay out the institution on a tract of land in which he had an interest. In a splendid demonstration of the partnership between Rochester and western New York, in an unmistakable vote of confidence in the university idea, pledges in the amount of about $100,000 were secured. Baptists of New York City and vicinity raised $25,000, and the grand total was announced as approximately $142,000--the objective was then increased to $150,000. It is "difficult to discover, rejoiced a leading organ of Baptist opinion, "how, with ordinary care in its management, the University need ever be involved in debt."8IIIPersuaded that the financial stipulations of the provisional charter had been satisfied with reasonable adequacy, the State Regents on February 14, 1851 replaced the original instrument with a formal charter. It was prescribed, however, that the charter would be revoked unless within five years the University presented evidence that it had accumulated an endowment of $100,000. The document itself--still in perfect condition--is a handsomely bound piece of bookmaking, printed artistically on the finest parchment with illumined gilt borders on each page and diverting devices --landscape sketches, ancient and up-to-date edifices, et cetera. 9Since the conditions of the 1851 charter were not fulfilled within five years, the University trustees petitioned for an extension of five years. Though many subscriptions had not been fully paid, the trustees reported slightly over $40,000 in investments, which, together with pledges that it was considered would be honored and property owned by the University, showed about $165,000 on the books.Because the University was already carrying on instruction successfully, and because its officers had displayed "great zeal and faithfulness" in procuring funds, the Regents in 1856 agreed to a five-year extension to obtain an endowment fund of $100,000. On January 10, 1861 the trustees disclosed assets valued at $190,000 at least, though less than $55,000 were in the investment portfolio. Nonetheless, the Regents accepted the interpretation that their terms had been complied with "substantially, although not literally," and accordingly declared the university charter to be permanent. 10Years before, the trustees endeavored to enlarge institutional resources by a subvention from the state government. Early in 1851, Governor Washington Hunt encouraged them to ask for $5,000 a year from general state funds. In a formal request to the legislature, dated February 12, 1851, the trustees pointed out that the university was a going concern and that subscriptions to the endowment fund had come from more than seven hundred donors "embracing the representatives of all classes of our population more completely than any college which has ever received the encouragement of the legislature."The petition directed attention to the unique emphasis in the Rochester curriculum on "a liberal education in the practical sciences...extending through the entire period of college residence" and enrolling a dozen students. Existing university facilities would be inadequate in a year or two and no money was available for buildings, equipment, and library; hence, the application for a large appropriation of state aid. As a clinching argument, it was pointed out that western New York had never received public assistance for higher education in proportion to its population; the U. of R. deserved to share equally with New York colleges which for years had been recipients of state bounty.Bills to implement the request were presented in the Assembly in Albany, one authorizing a substantial lump sum grant, and a second promising the University $6,000 a year for two years out of a general fund for colleges in the state. 11Spurred on by visions of obtaining as much as $50,000, representatives of the University applied their powers of persuasion on Senators and Assemblymen. For a time prospects for enactment of the measure looked bright, but then certain lawmakers favored voting funds for an agricultural college, which would form the nucleus of a state university, while others wished to concentrate public moneys for education on improving the common schools.At a moment when the embers of the removal quarrel were still quite hot, partisans of Madison University either worked undercover against financial a grant to Rochester or, alternatively, sought for the institution at Hamilton the equivalent of whatever might be given to the college beside the Genesee. Some legislators expressed, the view that Madison, since it was "weaker and deserted," deserved assistance far more than its youthful rival to the west. The Senate voted a modest appropriation for Rochester, but the Assembly killed the measure, and the trustees laid the subject of state aid on the shelf for several years. 12IVBy the terms of the university charter, a board of trustees, not to exceed twenty-four, constituted the corporate body legally responsible for the management of the institution; it was vested with general authority on overall policies concerning administration, faculty, buildings, and finance, the last always the most urgent perplexity. Trustees came together infrequently to listen to and remark upon the annual report of the chief educational officer, to hear the story of the treasurer on the state of finances, and to vote degrees, including honorary awards. Election of the university president and of members to fill vacancies were very important duties of the trustees; a large part of the decision-making responsibility of the Board was in fact delegated to a powerful executive committee of nine set up first September 16, 1850.Of the twenty-four original trustees twenty-one belonged to or were adherents of the Baptist denomination;13 two members worshipped as Episcopalians, and a third was a Presbyterian. Most of the Baptist trustees had served the institution at Hamilton and several of the trustees residing in Rochester had been involved in the "Presbyterian" project for a center of higher education in their city. At least nine of the first trustees had earned academic degrees and one more had studied for several years in a college.Half of the trustees were business men of one kind or another, three were lawyers by profession, two were farmers, four or possibly five were Baptist ministers, leaving two whose vocations can not be ascertained. Eight of the men were Rochesterians, four had homes in Albany, three resided in New York City, and nine at other places in New York State. 14With one exception all the members of the original executive committee lived in Rochester, and the last came from Albion, only fifty miles away. John N. Wilder, who had been chosen president of the Board, a responsibility he exercised until his premature death in 1858, served as chairman of the executive committee. The better to look after University affairs, Wilder moved his family to Rochester, living for a time in a showplace of the inner city, the imposing Child mansion on Washington Street (in 1968 the quarters of the Bureau of Municipal Research). He gave receptions to benefit the infant college, entertained its guests, and lodged some faculty men until they found suitable houses. No aspect of university life lay outside the range of Wilder's concern, and when the treasury ran low he generously dipped into his own pocket to tide over distressed professors or to satisfy importunate creditors. Tendered the presidency of the University, which he considered the greatest compliment that had ever come to him, Wilder declined because of business involvements. After resuming residence in Albany in order to handle his personal interests, Wilder continued to participate actively in all the doings of the institution beside the Genesee.Instead of Oren Sage, who concentrated his energies on developing the Theological Seminary once the college had been fairly launched, his son, William N., thirty-one years old, accepted a trusteeship and acted as secretary of the executive committee; the secretary of the Board as well, Sage soon took on the chores of treasurer also. For forty years he rendered inestimable service in these capacities; the modest compensation he was paid passed largely to the keeper of the University financial records. Sage did more. He methodically collected newspaper clippings about the college and pasted them in voluminous scrapbooks, which are indispensable sources of information for the historian. Of him it was authoritatively said, "the first twenty years of growth and prosperity on the part of the University were greatly due to the skill, judgment, and self-sacrificing labor of William N. Sage." 15Another influential individual on the executive committee in the formative period was the universally respected Frederick Whittlesey, Yaleman, lawyer, public servant, and prominent Rochester Episcopalian. Instrumental, too, in winning community cooperation in the making of the University was Everard Peck; a publisher, banker, and a Presbyterian, Peck was on terms of closest intimacy with Wilder, to whom he was related by marriage.Baptists in the first executive group included civic-minded David R. Barton, a well-to-do Rochester tool manufacturer, Elon Huntington, who faithfully served the University year in and year out until his death in 1899 at the patriarchal age of ninety-one, Elijah F. Smith, sometime mayor of the city, and Edwin Pancost, son-in-law of Oren Sage, his partner in a shoemaking firm, and, like him, keenly interested in education, though he had himself only attended an elementary school. Roswell S. Burrows, who had studied at Yale and prospered as a banker in neighboring Albion--and who made liberal benefactions to the University--rounded out the executive contingent.Another outstanding original trustee and no doubt the most cultivated and sophisticated of all was Robert Kelly, who had thought long and constructively about educational subjects and had extensive and, varied practical experience in education both in New York City and across the state. A graduate of Columbia College with highest honors, he accumulated an ample fortune by the age of twenty-nine, retired from business, and devoted himself to the public weal. Lover of books that he was and an expert in languages, Kelly impressed men who knew him well as an industrious, accurate, and mature scholar. To a sharp sense of duty to society and acumen in finance, he united sound judgment on educational policy and commitment to wide diffusion of opportunities for learning. A loyal and dedicated friend of the embryonic U. of R., Kelly contributed especially to the shaping of curricular plans; on one winter journey from Manhattan to Rochester to deal with university problems, he arrived in the Genesee city with both ears frozen. 16Services rendered by Kelly, the executive committee, and to a lesser extent by other trustees in the exceptionally busy year of 1850 were of incalculable value for the budding academic adventure.VSelection of an executive officer for the University and organization of the teaching force stood high on the trustee agenda. At one point, President Francis Wayland of Brown, who was not entirely happy with the state of affairs there, was urged to consider coming to Rochester for five years so "that you may get things arranged for another man;" Wayland preferred, however, to stay in Providence. Since no decision on the Rochester presidency could immediately be reached, Judge Ira Harris of Albany, a trustee, honors graduate of Union College, and prominent Baptist, was persuaded to assume the unsalaried dignity of chancellor, a title he wore until his death in 1875 and then the office was abolished. Known for his deep interest in extending educational opportunities and having a reputation as a scholar, public man, and effective orator, the tall and impressive Harris was a capital choice as nominal head of the University and as presiding dignitary at the early Commencements, (A United States Senator during the Civil War, Harris bedeviled President Lincoln by his relentless quest for patronage). 17 It was never intended that Harris should be anything more than a temporary appointee, Trustee sentiment inclined to favor as president a man who occupied a commanding position in society, not a clergyman, a business executive--Robert Kelly for example. "Would he [Kelly] take pride," one trustee inquired, "in bringing his business talents to make the best college in America? ... We want to build up--to endow, to make a strong college..." A colleague chimed in that Kelly's financial experience would stand him in excellent stead as president, and besides "he would devote himself [to the college] gratuitously for a few years until it was well established. But Kelly had other ideas for himself, though he wanted as chief executive at Rochester a layman of "influence and business tact." 18After a considerable exchange of views in the spring of 1851, the trustees offered the presidency to Professor Barnas Sears, who, as the former President of the Newton Theological Institution and secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education, had a fine reputation as a scholar, and teacher. An alumnus of Brown and an ordained minister, Sears ranked second only to Wayland among Baptist educators in America, and personal qualities of tact and geniality equipped him to fill the Rochester post capably. The invitation of the trustees held out a maximum salary of $1,800, and specified that if Sears responded affirmatively he should undertake the presidential duties immediately; but after no little hesitation, he decided that it would be "doing wrong" to accept. Four years later Sears assumed the Brown presidency, proving himself a traditionalist in educational philosophy, but a competent administrator, and a successful money-raiser. 19Reporting for an ad hoc trustee Committee on the Internal Concerns of the institution, Kelly thought the University suffered severely for want of a president, who would implement the plans for instruction, and for lack of a permanent professor of mathematics and natural philosophy of "great experience and thorough training, "who would, strengthen the scientific curriculum of the college. The search for a president went on, but the problem of faculty personnel was rather easily resolved. 20VI The genesis of the U. of R.is closely linked to the exodus of the ablest professors from Madison University. This sequence was no novelty, for England's Cambridge similarly was indebted to Oxford, Leipzig University to Prague, the University of Budapest to Tyrnau, to cite merely random examples. On September 16, 1850, the trustees formally elected Professors Kendrick, Richardson, and Raymond, who, since they had labored together at Hamilton, knew the strengths and little foibles of each other.The supreme gift of Madison to Rochester was Professor Asahel C. Kendrick, teacher of Greek, who served as executive officer until a president was found, and on two subsequent occasions he carried administrative responsibilities in the absence of the president. Just when Kendrick was poised for flight to Rochester an attractive invitation was extended him to take the Greek professorship at Brown. The temptation to accept an appointment at that well-established institution, in contrast to the pioneering labor that would be required at Rochester, was strong, and Kendrick was sufficiently interested to inquire about living costs in Providence--a friend assured him that a family could lead a genteel existence on $1,000 a year, provided it was content with a single servant! After pondering the Brown offer "till my head and heart swelled and ached," Kendrick decided to cast in his fortunes with the new Genesee venture; in the first phase of his residence he found Rochester "oppressively lonely." Invitations that came along to leave Rochester Kendrick turned down and he remained in the classroom until 1881, when a heart condition obliged him to restrict his activity to small groups meeting in his home; his name stood on the faculty roll until his death in 1895.21Tall, spare in frame, stoop-shouldered, smooth-shaven, and recurrently in poor health, Kendrick nevertheless earned an assured place among the immortals of the University faculty. His kindly and gentle nature, a steady flow of wit and wisdom, his simplicity and candor, a mellow voice, and resourceful scholarship endeared him to generation after generation of undergraduates and to an elite company of Rochester townsmen; by students and alumni he was exalted into a legend while he yet lived.Upon his return from a trip for health reasons to the South, Kendrick was hailed: 2b1af7f3a8